Collection: III. Information File

III. Superstitions

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Categorizing Superstitions

Gods that are built up of superstitions which someone holds: moment they don’t believe in the superstitions these “gods” are rendered useless - completely imaginative 
 
Main character with an external locus of control: blame others for their problems - not themselves 
Anxious character - learn to accept responsibilities and reality and become more confident 
 

Category of Superstitions:

Good Luck: 
  1. Carry acorn 
  2. White butterfly beginning of year is good luck 
  3. Heads side coin
  4. Two crows
  5. Rabbits foot is good luck 
  6. All-seeing eye: spiritual sight 
  7. Amulet 
  8. Dove: peace
 
Protection:
  1. Carry amber beads
  2. Blue beads protect from witches
  3. Circle will protect you from evil spirits
  4. Three crows is health
  5. Knock on wood three times
  6. Throw salt over the shoulder
  7. Caduceus (staff of hermes) - greek messenger 
  8. Dream catcher 
  9. Evil eye
 
Bad Luck:
  1. Black cat walks away takes luck with them 
  2. Bird in the house 
  3. Bees are an omen that house will burn down 
  4. Light three cigarettes in a row 
  5. Tails side coin 
  6. Don’t step on a crack 
  7. One crow
  8. Walk under a ladder
  9. White moth entering the house 
  10. Photograph
  11. Three seagulls mean death 
  12. Putting shoes on table mean bad luck 
  13. Breaking a mirror 
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Song of the Sea

+ Creates a narrative based around Irish folklore and superstition
+ Has a lot of magical and imaginative qualities to it 
+ Very great visuals - uses a lot fo waterocolro textures as a background for a 2 dimensional animation
+ Magical and whimsical quality to it
+ Examines the stories behind what makes folklore and explores the boundaries between reality and folklore

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Edmund Chamberlain at Browse and Darby (Gallery visit Nov 2014)

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+ Hyperrealistic pencil sketches
+ Has a certain eerie quality to it which I can approach in the works that I am making about superstitions
+ Uses pencil as the main medium - apply this to my works as well 
+ Empty and dark quality to it - approach superstitions with a dark quality? 

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Contemporary Mexican Artists

Dr. Lakra

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+Tattoo artist: reference: sex, death, demons and historical themes [1]

Carlos Amorales

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"Like his drawings, the animations make reference to the concept of evil by summoning up the horror and fear associated with its presence in both the collective and individual subconscious. By giving form to these emotions, Amorales’s work fulfills both a cathartic function, by allowing the audience to purge these feelings, and an apotropaic one, by deflecting these negative elements from those who encounter them. And while he allows for an accessible point of entry into his dark fantasies, once that threshold is crossed, it becomes entirely the viewer’s responsibility to create his or her own story. Amorales’s animations make that task particularly challenging by alternating between abstraction and figuration, narrative and nonnarrative sequences."

"Bringing the underbelly of nature indoors, Amorales creates metaphors for the evil that lurks around every corner." [1]

 

Black Cloud

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+ Look beautiful yet intimidating at the same time
+ According to the Philidelphia Museum of Art: reference to Biblical plagues: “where the boundaries between beauty and awe, good and evil, calm and calamity are constantly blurred and where imagination is called upon." [2]

 

Source: 12

Gabriel Orzoco 

+ Explores philosophical problems with spatial relationships 
+ Chance connections: whimsy and paradox 
+ Works with found materials or situations - humorous scenarios 

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La DS
+ Cut a Citroen DS car into thirds and removed the middle section
+ Exaggeration of design: makes it humorous 

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Atomists: Jump Over 

+ Interest in mapping and geometry: exploring the structure 

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Dark Wave 

+ Motif of circle that reappears in his artwork 
+ Full scale replica of a 14m whale skeleton - traced with mammal's pulse points "topography of the object"

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Ben Jones' Prints

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"The unique set of contrasting textures that give Ben’s work its individual feel are created by using two distinct techniques together. He starts by using  different forms of printing but then changes pace, adding collage or reworking directly onto the prints. It’s an interesting approach that gives his work a noticeable flavour. He tells us more about how he goes about this process."

+ Really interesting approach to image making by combining two methods together whether it be through printing or collage
+ Imagery has a rough look which I would like to achieve through my lino cuts as well
+ Lots of his imagery seems to have a lot of symbolism and meaning behind the icons which he chose for his pictures - very interesting to look at and dissect - I want to have the same quality in my works - lots of icons influenced by research but combine together to form an interesting whole image

Source: 1

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Black Chronicles II at Rivington Place (Gallery Visit Nov 2014)

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+ Photographs that have never been published before from the 19th and 20th century 
+ Taken in photographic studios
+ Can explore the quality of untold stories and unearthed stories in superstitions
+ The atmosphere and story behind the portraits are quite interesting as they infer to something bigger than what they represent. Interesting in that these portraits have never been seen - how many stories or folklores have existed in the past and have been put away? What happened to them all and why were they never told? 

Source: 1

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Personal Response

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In some cultures, it is considered bad luck to take a picture with three people in it as it is said that the person in the middle will die sooner than the other two. 

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The Copper House Gallery: The Art of Superstition

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ALE MERCADO - BORN UNDER A BAD SIGN

Superstitions are those things we turn to when we need an explanation to what we can't explain. They are fear to fight fear. From small rituals to big religions.
 
For a superstitious person, as Albert King seems to say in the song that gives name to the piece, it is better to have bad luck than no luck at all.

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BRIAN FITZGERALD - SALT
I never understood the reason for chucking salt over your left shoulder to undo the bad luck of spilling it on the table in the firstplace. Now I’m a little wiser. Salt is very affordable now but in ancient times it was rare and was a precious commodity and was used as a form of currency. So if you spilled it you were chucking your money about carelessly which was considered bad luck in those days. The devil gets the blame for your carelessness and as he sits on your left shoulder a pinch of salt was one way of blinding him. This clever move will prevent him from tricking you into spilling any more salt about the table.
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CATHY DINEEN - SOMETHING THERE TO OFFEND EVERY RELIGION
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AIDAN COONEY - DANCING DEMONIAC
Most preformers are supersticious and regularly wear black
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DAMIAN O'DONOHUE - FAN DEATH
In South Korea, it is widely believed that, if you go to sleep with a fan switched on in a room where the windows are closed, you will die of Asphyxiation.
 
In Damian's interpretation, Death comes in the form of a demon, emerging from the running fan, who slowly and menacingly gorges on the life-force of its' victim.
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DAVID MCCLELLAND - TOUCH WOOD
By touching the wood of a tree it is believed that you will be granted good luck by the fairies living in that tree. While it is just a superstition you should always make sure that it is the wood that you are touching when you make your wish.
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DERRY DILLON - A PRAYER AT HALF TIME
Sports fans are a particularly superstitious bunch. They somehow imagine that a lucky old shirt or toy deity or even a 'psychic' octopus can influence the outcome of a game. In my illustration I've created a particularly desperate football fan who, although not on the pitch, perhaps feels more involved by surrounding himself with his lucky trinkets.
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DIARMUID O'CATHAIN - SOULULOID
Native Americans traditionally believed that having their photographs taken could steal their souls and disrespect the spirit world. Many would refuse to pose for pictures fearing that part of them would be imprisoned forever on film.
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DONOUGH O'MALLEY - DIFUNTA CORREA
Difunta Correa is an unofficial and popular saint of Argentina. Legend has it that this lady went in search of her husband, who had been conscripted into the army. She died from thirst in the desert but days afterwards gauchos discovered her baby alive, still breast feeding on her body. Since then, dotted along the dusty desert roads of Argentina are shrines to this patron saint of truck drivers, where people place bottles of water for her eternal thirst, in the hope she will guide them safely on their journey.
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EOIN COVENEY - APOLLO 13
Launched on the 11th of April, 1970 at precisely 13:13 CST, it was the seventh manned mission of the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the moon.
 
NASA apparently didn't suffer from triskaidekaphobia, or the fear of the number 13.
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FINTAN TAITE - THE SIRENS
In Greek mythology Sirens lived on the island Sirenum scopuli, and were daughters of Ceto the sea monster and Phorcys the sea god. In Fintan Taite's interpretation they drew passing sailors to their doom with some tuneless singing, corsets, and a fine array of tattoos. 
 
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PETER DONNELLY - SEAWAYS
In Seaways, Peter Donnelly uncovers traditional maritime folklore and superstitions from Ireland and Scotland.
The sight of redheads, dogs and clergymen near a ship as well the mention of salt onboard were considered bad omens while the spilling of blood prior to sailing was considered good luck by the fishing community. 
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JESSE CAMPBELL BROWN - GOOD TO KEEP THE YANG UP
The Superstition under scrutiny by Jesse Campbell-Brown in this work is the belief of Chinese medicine practitioners that parts of tigers can be used to cure various ailments - more specifically, that Tiger penis can cure impotence, premature ejaculation, sexual dysfunction, and boost all round virility. Apparently it makes a lovely soup and is eagerly consumed by those stereotypically short changed in the trouser-snake department. 

The use of endangered Tiger products and their medicines is also seen as a symbol or high status and wealth, and the recent increase in the standard of living in China and southeast Asia, had contributed to the demand for these products. Indeed, China has almost eradicated it's own Tiger population, and now sources Tigers from Bangladesh and Nepal.  China is not alone in the mass slaughter of this endagerd animal - in Russia, poaching one Tiger can provide 10 years income on the black market. It's estimated that in 1991, one third of the Siberian Tigers were killed to meet demand for Chinese medicine supplies. 

As mentioned, it is not just the penis that is used in Chinese medicine: In Taiwan, a bowl of Tiger penis soup goes for US$320, and a pair of eyes (to fight epilepsy and malaria) for US$170. Powdered Tiger humerus bone (for treating ulcers rheumatism and typhoid) brings up to US$1,450 lb. in Seoul.

As few as 3,200 Tigers exist in the wild today. It is fair to say that this superstition, pandering to the sexual insecurities of men across the patriarchal societies of asia, is complete fantasy, horribly and unnecessarily destructive, and well deserving of, not only being completely eradicated, but also of our utter contempt.
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STEVE CANNON - HARBINGER
An old superstition of if a crow flies over a house it can foretell of a death within the house "A crow on the thatch, soon death lifts the latch."
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STEVE SIMPSON - THE MONARCH
Each year, around time of El Día de los Muertos, the sky over the Mexican mountain village of Anguangeo becomes a flurry of orange as millions of monarch butterflies flutter in an endless stream into a few remote groves of firs in the hills above the town.
 
Locals have long believed the monarchs are the returning spirits of their deceased relatives, mysteriously arriving at the same time each year, coinciding with the Day of the Dead. Aztec tradition holds that the souls of the departed will return as butterflies. The link between myth and the monarchs’ annual return spans centuries.
 
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POPPY & RED - ALL THAT GLITTERS
A playful take on the old traditional children's rhyme about the sparkle loving Magpie. Magpies have been considered a bird of ill omen for centuries, but the predictions are not always bad! This superstition indicates the possibility of a positive outcome. According to the well known rhyme, the number of magpies a person sees determines their fate. Although there are a number of variations, the most common version reads:
One for sorrow,
Two for joy,
Three for a girl,
Four for a boy,
Five for silver,
Six for gold,
Seven for a secret never to be told.
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PJ LYNCH - THE RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER
For centuries sailors have considered it very unlucky to kill an albatross. In
Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, the narrator
killed the bird with his crossbow and, when their luck turns bad, his fellow
sailors force him to wear the dead albatross around his neck. 
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ORLA ROCHE - ONE IS FOR SORROW
The Superstition goes-  One is for sorrow. Two is for joy...... 
In this film noir, one lonely magpie meets his sorrowful demise.
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KEVIN MC SHERRY - BLASPHEMY
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ADRIENNE GEOGHEGAN - RUSSIAN RAGE
Based on the superstition in Russia: never give a lady an even number of flowers, in other words 13 is better than a dozen! 
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MARK REIHILL - LUCKY GIRL
The piece features four superstitions; lucky four leaf clover, lucky rabbit's foot, lucky pants and three on a match.
 
During the first World War it was considered bad luck for three people to light their cigarettes from the same match. It was said the third on the match would be shot. As our over-superstitious heroine bends over to pick up a four leaf clover she narrowly dodges the snipers bullet.
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NIAMH SHARKEY - THREE FOR A FUNERAL
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MAURICE PIERCE - THE DARK ABANDON
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AISLING DOWLING - SAILORS AND TATTOOS
My piece is based on the longstanding tradition of sailors and tattoos. Sailors often got tattoos of specific objects to warn off bad luck and keep them safe while on board the ships. Images and names of loved ones were a popular choice as well as anchors, compasses and black cats
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THE PROJECT TWINS - FRAGILE
In this piece, humour is used to question ideas of ecclesiastical fear and how belief systems and rituals can be seen as superstitions.
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PHIL MCDARBY - LADDERS
A figure stands immobile, trapped in an infinite environment of ladders and walkways - unable to move without walking under those dreaded rungs. 
 
Source: 1
Details

Gods in Hinduism

Annapurna

+ Goddess of food and cooking 
+ Nourishing care 

Ganesha

+ Lord of all existing beings 
+ Different forms of Ganesha

Matangi

+ dark one

Brahma

+ Hindu trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva 
+ Brahma = creator, Vishnu = preserver, Shiva  = Destroyer

Kali

+ Goddess of time and of the transformation that is death 

Shiva

+ Destroyer of the world - responsible for change both in form of death and destruction and destroying ego 

Vishnu

+ Preserver and protector of creation - mercy and goodness

Source: 1

Details

Superstitious Rhymes

A Week of Birthdays
 
Monday's child is fair of face,
Tuesday's child is full of grace,
Wednesday's child is full of woe,
Thursday's child has far to go,
Friday's child is loving and giving,
Saturday's child works hard for its living,
But the child that's born on the Sabbath day,
Is bonny and blithe, and good and gay.
 
March Winds
 
March winds and April showers
Bring forth May flowers.
 
Sneezing
 
If you sneeze on Monday, you sneeze for danger;
Sneeze on a Tuesday, kiss a stranger;
Sneeze on a Wednesday, sneeze for a letter;
Sneeze on a Thursday, something better.
Sneeze on Friday, sneeze fro sorrow;
Sneeze on Saturday, joy tomorrow. 
 
The First of May
 
The fair maid who, the first of May,
Goes to the fields at break of day,
And washes in dew from the hawthorn-tree,
Will ever after handsome be.
 
Banbury Cross
 
Ride a cock-horse to Banbury Cross,
to see an old lady upon a white horse.
Rings on her fingers and bells on her toes,
She shall have music wherever she goes.
 
Magpies
One for anger,
Two for mirth,
Three for a wedding,
Four for a birth,
Five for rich,
Six for poor,
Seven for a witch,
I can tell you no more.
 
Crow
One's unlucky,
Two's lucky;
Three is health,
Four is wealth;
Five is sickness,
And six is death!
 
This charme shall be said at night, or against night, about the place or feild, or about beasts without feild, and whosoever cometh in, he goeth not out for certaine.
On three crosses of a tree,
Three dead bodyes did hang;
Two were theeves,
The third was Christ,
On whom our beleife is.
Dismas and Gesmas;
Christ amidst them was;
Dismas to heaven went,
Gesmas to heaven was sent.
Christ that died on the roode,
For Marie's love that by him stood,
And through the vertue of his blood,
Jesus save us and our good,
Within and without,
And all this place about!
And through the vertue of his might,
Lett noe theefe enter in this night
Noe foote further in this place
That I upon goe,
But at my bidding there be bound
To do all things that I bid them do!
Starke be their sinewes therewith,
And their lives mightles,
And their eyes sightles!
Dread and doubt
Them enclose about,
As a wall wrought of stone;
So be the crampe in the ton (toes):
Crampe and crookeing,
And tault in their tooting,
The might of the Trinity
Save these goods and me,
In the name of Jesus, holy benedicité,
All about our goods bee,
Within and without,
And all place about!
 
Fingernail
 
Cut them on Monday, you cut them for health;
Cut them on Tuesday, you cut them for wealth;
Cut them on Wednesday, you cut them for news;
Cut them on Thursday, a new pair of shoes;
Cut them on Friday, you cut them for sorrow;
Cut them on Saturday, see your true love to-morrow;
Cut them on Sunday, the devil will be with you all the week.
 
Color
 
Blue is true,
Yellow's jealous,
Green's forsaken,
Red's brazen,
White is love,
And black is death!

Night-mare.—The following charm is taken from Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft, 1584, p. 87:

S. George, S. George, our ladies knight,
He walkt by daie, so did he by night.
Untill such time as he her found,
He hir beat and he hir bound,
Untill hir troth she to him plight,
She would not come to hir that night.

Bed-charm.—The following is one of the most common rural charms that are in vogue. Boys are taught to repeat it instead of a prayer:

Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,
Bless the bed that I lay on;
Four corners to my bed,
Four angels round my head,
One at head and one at feet,
And two to keep my soul asleep!
The Hiccup.
Hickup, hickup, go away,
Come again another day:
Hickup, hickup, when I bake,
I'll give to you a butter-cake.
 
 

 

 
Details

Ancient Greek Gods

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Zeus

 + King of gods: control weather: cloud gatherer & thunderer
+ Powerful thunderbolt 

Figure of Heraia

Hera

+ Queen of gods - goddess of weddings and marriage 
+ A high crown and sceptre

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Athena

+ Goddess of war & cunning wisdom 
+ Shown in full armour and helmet, goat skin fringed with snakes and associated with the owl 

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Apollo

+ God of sun, truth, music, poetry, dance and healing
+ Bow was his symbol

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Demeter

+ Goddess of fertility and agriculture 

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Poseidon

+ God of sea and horses 
+ Trident

undefinedOften accompanied by birds, especially doves, geese and sparrows

Aphrodite

+ Goddess of love and beauty 
+ Accompanied by birds (doves, geese, sparrow) 

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Hermes

+ God of travel, business, weights and measures and sports. Messenger of the gods and guided souls of the dead to the underworld
+ Traveller's hat, Herald's staff, winged sandals

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Artemis

+ Goddess of hunting, archery and childbirth
+ Bow and arrow, wild animals

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Ares

+ God of war - not as cunning
+ Armour and helmet

 Source: 1

Details

Grandes Maestros: Great Masters of Iberoamerican Folk Art, Collection of Fomento Cultural Banamex

Oscar Soteno Elias

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Artisan tree of Iberoamerica

Manuel Jimenez Ramirez 

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Feline

Cecilia Vargas

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Pitalito Express, Eustorgio Inchima and Yorleny's Wedding 

 

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Medardo de Jesus Suarez Vueltiao Hat 

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Miguel Caraballo Garcia Mask - papier mache

Manuel Eudocia Rodrigues 

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Couple Riding an Ox 

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Isabel Mendes da Cunha Bride

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Leonardo Linares Vargas Skull

 

Overall, there is an amazing use of color in these works
+ Find them to be very interesting and delicate and detailed - for Object week, I can focus on making small detailed objects which then join together to form one big object
+ Visualizations of superstitions seems to be the route in which my project is heading towards - they visualize the traditions and superstitions in their culture and I can find a way to do that as well 

Source: 1

Details

Unanswered Questions

1) Is the universe finite or infinite? 
2) Why does anything exist? 
3) Why does time exist? 
4) Why do humans matter? 
5) Why are humans so fallible? 
6) Do human accomplishments have long-term meaning? 
7) Why is the future unknowable?
8) What is the purpose of death? 

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V&A Collections

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Pendant Reliquary Cross 
Relics believed to have powers: worn close to body for protection (1350)

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Layette Pincuishions
+ Given to women who had newly or recently given birth for good luck 
+ Symbolic: baby clothes in UK were fastened with ordinary pins until 1870s 
+ Unlucky to give it before birth: outcome would not become successful: superstition about pins and birth pain. "For every pin a pain" and "More pins, more pain" = traditional sayings and some women would remove all pins

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The Luck of Edenhall (either made in England, Egypt, or Syria in 14th century)
+ Considered an item of great value - suggested that Christian religious symbol 

"In the 18th century local antiquarians took an interest in the Luck of Edenhall, and they recorded (or invented) a legend that explained the presence of this exotic and beautiful object at Edenhall. According to this legend, ‘a party of Fairies were drinking and making merry round a well near the Hall, called St Cuthbert’s well; but being interrupted by the intrusion of some curious people, they were frightened, and made a hasty retreat, and left the cup in question: one of the last screaming out,

If this cup should break or fall 
Farewell the Luck of Edenhall.’

This superstition, fortunately, continued to exert its influence. The American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, in his mid 19th-century translation of Johan Ludwig Uhland’s ballad about the ‘Luck’, envisages the terrible consequences of its careless destruction during a banquet at Edenhall:

As the goblet ringing flies apart 
Suddenly cracks the vaulted hall; 
And through the rift the wild flames start; 
The guests in dust are scattered all, 
With the breaking Luck of Edenhall!

In storms the foe with fore and sword; 
He in the night had scaled the wall, 
Slain by the sword lies the youthful Lord, 
But holds in his hand the crystal tall, 
The shattered luck of Edenhall."

Details

Superstitious Symbols

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All-seeing eye: spiritual sight: inner vision/higher knowledge 

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Amulet: Magic charm to bring good luck & protection against illness 

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Ankh: Egyptian cross symbolizing a mythical eternal life, rebirth & life giving power of the sun 

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Angel: Symbol of good & evil spirits

Arrow: Symbolized: war, power, swiftness, rays of sun, knowledge

Bat: A symbol of good fortune in the east 

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Caduceus (Staff of Hermes): Greek messenger god: Hermes - 2 serpents creates 5 energy fields in body 

Circle: Ancient/universal symbol of unity, wholeness, infinity, the goddess, female power, and the sun - feminine spirit or force.

Cow: Symbolises sky goddess Hathor to Egyptians, enlightenment to Buddhists and highest reincarnation to Hindus

Crescent Moon: Symbol of ageing goddess to contemporary witches and victory over death 

Cross of Christians

Dove: Peace: representing the world's vision of universal peace: such as rainbow, olive branch, globe, Egyptian ankh

Dragon: Mythical monster made up of animals: serpent, lizard, bird, lion. Asian: help against hostile spiritual forces 

Dreamcatcher: Hang near bed to block bad dreams 

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Evil Eye: Symbol of dreadful fabled curse: frightened people 

Fish (ISCHTYS): Jesus Christ, Song of God, Savior (Greek letters) 

Frog: Symbol of fertility to many cultures 

 

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Hand of Fatima or Hamsa: Jewish versions of the hand: protect from evil eye 

Hexagram: Star of David 

Infinity: Ancient India/Tibet: represented perfection/dualism & unity between male and female 

Lion: ancient symbol of the sun. dominion, power, ferocity and bravery: put on shields, flags or banners by Medieval rulers. 

Mask: Used by pagans to represent animal powers/nature spirits, or ancestral spirits. 

Mermaid: Seen by some cultures as sea goddesses: guarded treasures/frightened travelers/fairy tales. Sirens in Homer's tales. 

OM: Sanskrit letters or symbol for the sacred Hindu sound om: states of consciousness: awake, sleeping, dreaming and transcendental state 

Scarab: Egyptian sun god: sacred symbol

Serpent or Snake: Represented rebirth: protection against evil, male and female sexuality, rain and fertility, mediator between physical and spiritual world. 

Spider: Linked to treachery and death in cultures - trickster or spinner of fate

Tao: Ancient Chinese symbol: unity, polarity, holism, magic - Yin Yang

Triangle: Associated with number 3 0 pointing upwards: symbolises fire, male power and counterfeit view of God. Pointing down: symbolizes water, female sexuality, goddess religions and homosexuality. 

Details

Knock on Wood

Knock on wood 3 times:

Ancient World: 
+ Trees are inhabited by nature spirits 
+ Invoke the aid of benevolent nature spirit residing within 
+ Irish: believed you thanked the leprechauns for good luck you've been experiencing. 
+ Christian: wood is the cross that Christ is crucified on 
+ Jewish: 1490s: Spanish Inquisition under Torquemada: Jews running from life: synagogues and temples built out of wood: coded knocks by Jews - knocking on wood became good luck
+ Tree worshippers: laid hands on trees when asking for favour from spirits/gods that lived inside 
+ Seeking protection against envy and anger 

Source: 1

Details

Superstition

Supernatural Causality: one event causes another without any natural process linking the two events (astrology, religion, omens, witchcraft, prophecies) that contradicts natural science. - luck, prophecy, spiritual beings 

Superstition and Psychology 
+ BF Skinner: article in Journal of Experimental Psychology 
+ Pigeons exhibition superstitious behaviour 
+ Done ritualistically to receive food: try to influence their feeding schedule 
+ Experimentation: partial reinforcement effect: explains superstitious behaviour in humans - means that "when an individual performs an action expecting a reinforcement, and none seems forthcoming, it actually creates a sense of persistence within the individual." - continuing action: reinforcement will happen 

Source: 1

Details

Religion

Main Religions: 

Abrahamic
+ Monotheistic religions - descend from Abraham 

Judaism
+ Based on Torah: handed down through Moses
+ Hebrew Bible and the Talmud 

Christianity 
+ Based on teachings of Jesus in the New Testament 
+ Jesus as Son of God. Holy Trinity: Father, Son and Holy Spirit as one Godhead. 

Islam
+ Based off of Quran: revealed by God and on the teachings of Muhammad 

Indian
+ Founded in the Indian subcontinent - dharma: specific law of reality and duties according to religion 

Hinduism
+ Conecpts: karma, caste, reincarnation, mantras, yantras, darsana. 
+ Dates back to prehistoric times 
+ Lots of separate philosophies 

Buddhism
+ Founded by Siddhattha Gotama: help sentient beings end their suffering by understanding the nature of phenomena: escape the cycle of suffering and rebirth -> achieve nirvana

Sikhism
+ Monotheistic religion founded on teachings of Guru Nanak 
+ One god who prevails in everything - social reform 

East Asian Religion 
Taosim/Confucianism 
Chinese folk religion: Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Wuism

Violence:
+ "the history and scriptures of the world's religions tell stories of violence and war as they speak of peace and love"
+ "Religions claim divine favor for themselves: over against other groups: this sense of righteousness leads to violence because conflicting claims to superiority, based on unverifiable appeals to God, cannot be adjudicated objectively"

Superstition in Religion: 

"Superstition has been described as "the incorrect establishment of cause and effect" or a false conception of causation"

Details

The Book of Life [film]

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+ Film about battle for souls between La Muerte (death) the ruler of Land of the Remembered and Xibalba ruler of the Land of the Forgotten
"Ultimately you walk life side-by-side with death,” he says, “and the Day of the Dead, curiously enough, is about life. It’s an impulse that’s intrinsic to the Mexican character. And when people ask me, what is so Mexican about your films, I say me. Because I’m not a guy that hides the monster: I show it to you with the absolute conviction that it exists. And that’s the way I think we view death. We don’t view it as the end of end all. You say ‘carpe diem’ in Dead Poets Society; we have that in a much more tequila-infused, mariachi-soundtrack kind of way.”

The Mexican way of life and death, according to Del Toro, is a legacy of pre-Columbian times, from Mayan and Aztec cultures that accepted that blood would be spilt in the natural course of things. “It is unnatural to deny effort, adversity and pain,” he says. “I think we live in a culture that is actually hedging all of it towards comfort and immediacy, things that scare me. All the things that they sell us as a way of life scare me.”

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The Magic of Everyday Life [Book]

+ Outward manifestations of deeply seated anxieties 
+ Latin: Superstes: outliving and surviving 
+ Describe beliefs of death religions living on 

+ Breaking a mirror: reflected self: alter ego, harm alter ego 
+ Walking under ladder: ladder against tree 
+ Superstitions: offer comforting assurance that the person can influence one's fate for good/evil 
+ Competitive situations - create anxieties - create sperstitions 
Sports: bet on 3, 7, 9s - odd #s 

'Luck is poor man's substitute for fate."
+ Irrational and a "weapon against chaos" 
+ Belief in an order - nothing to do with order/probability/cause & effect 
+ Lucky charms - Luck: lack of obvious rationale 
+ Shape of things to come
+ Counting birds - pre-Roman: count owls, wren, jack daw 
+ 24 black birds - baked in pierhyme - see outside house of dead family member 

+ Houses: Ireland - throw hat in air - where ever it lands it is safe to build 
+ Bread & salt laid on foundations for good luck
+ Late 17th century - build bottle of water & bread into the walls 
+ aid on foundation of blood: bury alive - Roman and Siam 

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Psychology Behind Superstition

+ Humans feel the need to create a "false certainty" instead of no certainty at all 
+ Superstitions let people think that they have done more than what is already possible to make sure to receive the right outcome.
+ Placebo effect: think something will help you, it may actually help you 
+ Statistics show women are more superstitious then men (such as horoscopes), older people are less likely to believe in superstitions, the more anxious the person - the more likely to be superstitious 
+ Locus of control is a factor: internal locus (things based on self) less likely to be superstitious, external locus (things based on outside forces) more likely to be superstitious 

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List of Several Superstitions of Interest

Acorn: Carried and will bring luck and a long life 
Amber: Amber beads - worn as a necklace can protect illness or cure colds 
Ambulance: Seeing an ambulance is unlucky unless you pinch your nose or hold your breath until you see a brown dog 
Apple: Twist the stem of an apple and recite names of someone you might marry - when the stem comes off: that is the person that you will marry
Baby: Swing a wedding band over the palm of a pregnant girl - if it swings circularly it is a girl, if it swings in a line it is a boy
Bed: Bad luck to put a hat on a bed, bed facing north and south brings misfortune, get out of bed on the same side as you got in
Bee: A swarm of bees setting on a roof is an omen that the house will burn down 
Bell: Bells drive away demons, when a bell rings an angel gets it's wings (It's a Wonderful Life) 
Bird: Bird in the house is a sign of a death 
Blue: Blue bead will protect yourself from witches 
Bridge: If you say goodbye to a friend on a bridge 
Butterfly: If the first butterfly you see in the year is white: you will have good luck all year, three butterflies together mean good luck 
Cat: If a black cat walks towards you, it brings good fortune, if it walks away, it takes good luck with it 
Cheeks: If you cheeks feel on fire: someone is talking about you 
Cigarettes: It is bad luck to light three cigarettes with the same match 
Circle: Evil spirits can't harm you when you stand inside a circle 
Clover: It's good luck to find a four leaf clover - protects from spell of magicians and fairies 
Coin: Bad luck to pick up a coin if it's tails side up 
Crack: Don't step on crack on sidewalk or walkway: "Step on a crack, break your mother's back." 
Cricket: Cricket in the house brings good luck
Counting Crows: One's bad, two's luck, three's health, four's wealth, five's sickness, six is death. 
Eyelash: If your eyelash falls out, blow it and make a wish 
Fish: Fish should be eaten from head to tail 
Flag: It is bad luck for a flag to touch the ground 
Friday the 13th: Origins
1) Norse myth: Dinner party with 12 gods in their heaven, mischievous Loki walks in as 13th guest. Loki arranged for the blind god of darkness to shoot Balder the Beautiful (god of joy and gladness) with an arrow. Balder died, and Earth got dark. Earth mourned
2) In the bible: Judas the apostle was the 13th guest to the Last Supper, Eve temped Adam on a Friday, Flood in the bible, Tower of Babel, Death of Jesus took place on Friday
3) Friday the 13th: In 1306 - King Philip of France arrested Knights Templar and tortured them 
4) Ancient Rome: witches gathered in groups of 12 as 13 was the devil
5) 12 is a complete power for numerologists: 12 months in a year, 12 zodiacs, 12 gods of Olympus, 12 labors of Hercules, 12 tribes of Israel, 12 apostles of Jesus. 
Examples of 13:
1) More than 80 high risese lack a 13th floor 
2) Airports skip 13th gate
3) Hospitals and hotels have no room number 13th 
Itch: If your nose itches you will be kissed by a fool: If your nose itches, your mouth is in danger. You'll kiss a fool, and meet a stranger. Rub an itch to wood it will come to good. 
Ladder: Bad luck to walk under a ladder 
Lie: "Cross my heart and hope to die, cut my throat if I tell a lie." 
Milk: Bad luck to let milk boil over 
Mirror: If you break a mirror it is 7 years bad luck. Mirror attracts lightning: should be covered during thunderstorm 
Moth: A white moth inside the house or trying to enter the house means death 
Opals: Unlucky to wear opals unless born in October 
Owl: Seeing an owl in the sunlight is bad luck 
Photograph: If three people are photographed together, the middle one will die first 
Rabbit's Foot: Bring luck and protect the owner from evil spirits
Rocking Chair: If you leave a rocking chair rocking and empty, evil spirits will come and sit in it 
Salt: Throw a pinch of salt over your shoulder into the face of the devil if you spill salt 
Seagull: Three seagulls flying together directly overhead are a warning of death soon to come
Shoes: Putting shoes on the table will bring bad luck - lose job, trouble with mate 
Sneeze: Your soul may escape while sneezing so cover mouth. Devil can enter mouth through sneeze hence why "God Bless You" 
Veil: A bride's veil protects evil spirits who are jealous of happy people 
Wood: Knock wood three times after talking about good fortune so evil spirits won't come 
Windows: After death, all windows should be opened so the soul can leave 

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Diane Sudkya: Folk

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+ Illustrations that explore the artist's own imagination in terms of folklore
+ Creates her own folklore and illustrations to accompany it and leaves the rest for the audience to decipher
+ I like the idea of incorporating her own aspects of story telling into it - however, I am not sure if this will be the right approach to my project as I feel as if I do not have enough research to create my own folklore as it should be informed with research.

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Edgar Allen Poe's The Raven

Choice of Raven as the "bearer of ill news": 
+ During that time: raven's black feather was considered a magical sign of ill omen
+ Referring to Norse mythology: Odin god had two ravens (Hugin and Munin) meaning thought and memory. [1]

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+ Printed in Mad magazine with illustrations by Will Elder [2]

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Alice Pattullo

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Alphabet of Superstitions

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Rabbit's Foot

Used the superstitions that already existed and tried to translate them into more interesting ways of presentation 
+ I find that the rabbit's foot product to be very successful as it plays on advertising and consumerism as a whole while conveying the nature of the rabbit's foot or good luck charms. This is definitely something that I want to explore later on in the project. 
+ Style of work is also very nice - ways of print making rather than digital so that the final pieces seem more rough and ragged rather than clean cut - print making is a method which I want to explore more in my project

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Jordan Baseman: Some People Believe

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"Jordan Baseman was commissioned to create an artwork for Oak Repels Lightning, a temporary art exhibition in the Challenge of Materials and Chemistry galleries in 1998. Baseman was interested in the emotional side of materials, and created Some People Believe, a website and alternative label trail that explored belief systems placed upon materials in folklore, fairytales, religion and superstition. Gathering often astonishing and incredible myths and superstitions from around the world, the artist gave insight into the importance materials play in everyday life and the culture-defining effect they can have. In 20th-century Borneo 'some people believe that gold has a soul'."

Some of the myths and superstitions from the work Some People Believe

Some people believe that cork placed under the pillow at night will prevent cramp during sleep. 
(19th-century England)

Some people believe that copper wire bound around the waist will relieve rheumatism. 
(15th-century Germany)

Some people believe that an arrow made from lead can kill love in a young person. 
(15th-century India)

Some people believe that putting nails made from iron in all the food within a house in mourning will drive death away from the house. 
(19th-century Scotland)

Some people believe that coffin nails made from silver will ensure that the spirit cannot escape after death. 
(19th-century England)

Some people believe that gold has a soul. 
(20th-century Borneo)

Some people believe that if any object made of tin is brought into a mine then only non-precious metals will be found. 
(19th-century Sumatra)

Some people believe that if any glass is accidentally broken during the celebration of a marriage it will mean misfortune to the newlyweds. 
(20th-century England)

Some people believe that if a piece of raw cotton becomes attached to your clothing then you will receive a letter from an admirer. 
(19th-century USA)

Some people believe that wool will absorb infection if held next to the skin.
(20th-century England)

Some people believe that burning leather and then inhaling the fumes on New Year's Eve will prevent misfortune and bring good health for the new year. 
(19th-century Scotland)

Some people believe that epilepsy can be cured by drinking ground human bones.
(19th-century England)

Some people believe that eating small amounts of wood from a pine tree will make a person immune to gunshot.
(20th-century Serbia)

Some people believe that the wood from an oak tree will repel lightning. 
(18th-century England)

Some people believe that warts can be transferred to an ash tree by rubbing bacon on the wart and then inserting the bacon underneath the bark of the tree. 
(18th-century England)

Some people believe that the wood from a beech tree will bring misfortune to children if it is brought into the home. 
(18th-century England)

Some people believe that witches and evil spirits congregate under walnut trees. 
(17th-century Lithuania)

Some people believe that passing a child through the branches of a maple tree will ensure a long life. 
(16th-century England)

Some people believe that it is unlucky to find a crow's feather. 
(20th-century Wales)

Some people believe that holy candles must be made from beeswax because bees come from paradise. 
(20th-century England)

Some people believe that holding a piece of coal while carrying out a crime will prevent you from being caught. 
(19th-century Ireland)

Some people believe that diamonds are the product of thunderbolts striking the earth.
(15th-century India)

Some people believe that bursting a paper bag indoors portends death. 
(20th-century USA)

Some people believe that wearing a ruby will allow the wearer to go amongst his or her enemies without fear.
(12th-century China)

Some people believe that putting a piece of quartz in your mouth and then spitting it out towards the sky during a drought will bring rain.
(18th-century Australia)

Some people believe that breaking a coconut on the threshold of a newlywed couple’s house will ensure a healthy marriage. 
(17th-century Fiji)

Some people believe that sprinkling flax seed over children will make them grow faster and stronger. 
(18th-century Germany)

Some people believe that eating from a bone china plate which is resting on another bone china plate foretells death. 
(20th-century England)

Some people believe that the sowing of hemp seed by a young girl will produce a vision of her future husband. 
(19th-century England)

Some people believe that stones which have a natural hole in them will prevent nightmares if they are hung above the bed before sleep. 
(17th-century England)

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Runa Rudaya: Superstitions

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Svetlin Vassilev: Greek Mythology

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