Category of Superstitions:
- Carry acorn
- White butterfly beginning of year is good luck
- Heads side coin
- Two crows
- Rabbits foot is good luck
- All-seeing eye: spiritual sight
- Dove: peace
- Carry amber beads
- Blue beads protect from witches
- Circle will protect you from evil spirits
- Three crows is health
- Knock on wood three times
- Throw salt over the shoulder
- Caduceus (staff of hermes) - greek messenger
- Dream catcher
- Evil eye
- Black cat walks away takes luck with them
- Bird in the house
- Bees are an omen that house will burn down
- Light three cigarettes in a row
- Tails side coin
- Don’t step on a crack
- One crow
- Walk under a ladder
- White moth entering the house
- Three seagulls mean death
- Putting shoes on table mean bad luck
- Breaking a mirror
Song of the Sea
+ Creates a narrative based around Irish folklore and superstition
+ Has a lot of magical and imaginative qualities to it
+ Very great visuals - uses a lot fo waterocolro textures as a background for a 2 dimensional animation
+ Magical and whimsical quality to it
+ Examines the stories behind what makes folklore and explores the boundaries between reality and folklore
Edmund Chamberlain at Browse and Darby (Gallery visit Nov 2014)
+ Hyperrealistic pencil sketches
+ Has a certain eerie quality to it which I can approach in the works that I am making about superstitions
+ Uses pencil as the main medium - apply this to my works as well
+ Empty and dark quality to it - approach superstitions with a dark quality?
Contemporary Mexican Artists
+Tattoo artist: reference: sex, death, demons and historical themes 
"Like his drawings, the animations make reference to the concept of evil by summoning up the horror and fear associated with its presence in both the collective and individual subconscious. By giving form to these emotions, Amorales’s work fulfills both a cathartic function, by allowing the audience to purge these feelings, and an apotropaic one, by deflecting these negative elements from those who encounter them. And while he allows for an accessible point of entry into his dark fantasies, once that threshold is crossed, it becomes entirely the viewer’s responsibility to create his or her own story. Amorales’s animations make that task particularly challenging by alternating between abstraction and figuration, narrative and nonnarrative sequences."
"Bringing the underbelly of nature indoors, Amorales creates metaphors for the evil that lurks around every corner." 
+ Look beautiful yet intimidating at the same time
+ According to the Philidelphia Museum of Art: reference to Biblical plagues: “where the boundaries between beauty and awe, good and evil, calm and calamity are constantly blurred and where imagination is called upon." 
+ Explores philosophical problems with spatial relationships
+ Chance connections: whimsy and paradox
+ Works with found materials or situations - humorous scenarios
+ Cut a Citroen DS car into thirds and removed the middle section
+ Exaggeration of design: makes it humorous
Atomists: Jump Over
+ Interest in mapping and geometry: exploring the structure
+ Motif of circle that reappears in his artwork
+ Full scale replica of a 14m whale skeleton - traced with mammal's pulse points "topography of the object"
Ben Jones' Prints
"The unique set of contrasting textures that give Ben’s work its individual feel are created by using two distinct techniques together. He starts by using different forms of printing but then changes pace, adding collage or reworking directly onto the prints. It’s an interesting approach that gives his work a noticeable flavour. He tells us more about how he goes about this process."
+ Really interesting approach to image making by combining two methods together whether it be through printing or collage
+ Imagery has a rough look which I would like to achieve through my lino cuts as well
+ Lots of his imagery seems to have a lot of symbolism and meaning behind the icons which he chose for his pictures - very interesting to look at and dissect - I want to have the same quality in my works - lots of icons influenced by research but combine together to form an interesting whole image
Black Chronicles II at Rivington Place (Gallery Visit Nov 2014)
+ Photographs that have never been published before from the 19th and 20th century
+ Taken in photographic studios
+ Can explore the quality of untold stories and unearthed stories in superstitions
+ The atmosphere and story behind the portraits are quite interesting as they infer to something bigger than what they represent. Interesting in that these portraits have never been seen - how many stories or folklores have existed in the past and have been put away? What happened to them all and why were they never told?
In some cultures, it is considered bad luck to take a picture with three people in it as it is said that the person in the middle will die sooner than the other two.
The Copper House Gallery: The Art of Superstition
ALE MERCADO - BORN UNDER A BAD SIGN
I never understood the reason for chucking salt over your left shoulder to undo the bad luck of spilling it on the table in the firstplace. Now I’m a little wiser. Salt is very affordable now but in ancient times it was rare and was a precious commodity and was used as a form of currency. So if you spilled it you were chucking your money about carelessly which was considered bad luck in those days. The devil gets the blame for your carelessness and as he sits on your left shoulder a pinch of salt was one way of blinding him. This clever move will prevent him from tricking you into spilling any more salt about the table.
Gods in Hinduism
+ Goddess of food and cooking
+ Nourishing care
+ Lord of all existing beings
+ Different forms of Ganesha
+ dark one
+ Hindu trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva
+ Brahma = creator, Vishnu = preserver, Shiva = Destroyer
+ Goddess of time and of the transformation that is death
+ Destroyer of the world - responsible for change both in form of death and destruction and destroying ego
+ Preserver and protector of creation - mercy and goodness
Night-mare.—The following charm is taken from Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft, 1584, p. 87:
S. George, S. George, our ladies knight,He walkt by daie, so did he by night.Untill such time as he her found,He hir beat and he hir bound,Untill hir troth she to him plight,She would not come to hir that night.
Bed-charm.—The following is one of the most common rural charms that are in vogue. Boys are taught to repeat it instead of a prayer:
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,Bless the bed that I lay on;Four corners to my bed,Four angels round my head,One at head and one at feet,And two to keep my soul asleep!
Hickup, hickup, go away,Come again another day:Hickup, hickup, when I bake,I'll give to you a butter-cake.
Ancient Greek Gods
+ King of gods: control weather: cloud gatherer & thunderer
+ Powerful thunderbolt
+ Queen of gods - goddess of weddings and marriage
+ A high crown and sceptre
+ Goddess of war & cunning wisdom
+ Shown in full armour and helmet, goat skin fringed with snakes and associated with the owl
+ God of sun, truth, music, poetry, dance and healing
+ Bow was his symbol
+ Goddess of fertility and agriculture
+ God of sea and horses
+ Goddess of love and beauty
+ Accompanied by birds (doves, geese, sparrow)
+ God of travel, business, weights and measures and sports. Messenger of the gods and guided souls of the dead to the underworld
+ Traveller's hat, Herald's staff, winged sandals
+ Goddess of hunting, archery and childbirth
+ Bow and arrow, wild animals
+ God of war - not as cunning
+ Armour and helmet
Grandes Maestros: Great Masters of Iberoamerican Folk Art, Collection of Fomento Cultural Banamex
Oscar Soteno Elias
Artisan tree of Iberoamerica
Manuel Jimenez Ramirez
Pitalito Express, Eustorgio Inchima and Yorleny's Wedding
Medardo de Jesus Suarez Vueltiao Hat
Miguel Caraballo Garcia Mask - papier mache
Manuel Eudocia Rodrigues
Couple Riding an Ox
Isabel Mendes da Cunha Bride
Leonardo Linares Vargas Skull
+ Overall, there is an amazing use of color in these works
+ Find them to be very interesting and delicate and detailed - for Object week, I can focus on making small detailed objects which then join together to form one big object
+ Visualizations of superstitions seems to be the route in which my project is heading towards - they visualize the traditions and superstitions in their culture and I can find a way to do that as well
1) Is the universe finite or infinite?
2) Why does anything exist?
3) Why does time exist?
4) Why do humans matter?
5) Why are humans so fallible?
6) Do human accomplishments have long-term meaning?
7) Why is the future unknowable?
8) What is the purpose of death?
Pendant Reliquary Cross
Relics believed to have powers: worn close to body for protection (1350)
+ Given to women who had newly or recently given birth for good luck
+ Symbolic: baby clothes in UK were fastened with ordinary pins until 1870s
+ Unlucky to give it before birth: outcome would not become successful: superstition about pins and birth pain. "For every pin a pain" and "More pins, more pain" = traditional sayings and some women would remove all pins
The Luck of Edenhall (either made in England, Egypt, or Syria in 14th century)
+ Considered an item of great value - suggested that Christian religious symbol
"In the 18th century local antiquarians took an interest in the Luck of Edenhall, and they recorded (or invented) a legend that explained the presence of this exotic and beautiful object at Edenhall. According to this legend, ‘a party of Fairies were drinking and making merry round a well near the Hall, called St Cuthbert’s well; but being interrupted by the intrusion of some curious people, they were frightened, and made a hasty retreat, and left the cup in question: one of the last screaming out,
If this cup should break or fall
Farewell the Luck of Edenhall.’
This superstition, fortunately, continued to exert its influence. The American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, in his mid 19th-century translation of Johan Ludwig Uhland’s ballad about the ‘Luck’, envisages the terrible consequences of its careless destruction during a banquet at Edenhall:
As the goblet ringing flies apart
Suddenly cracks the vaulted hall;
And through the rift the wild flames start;
The guests in dust are scattered all,
With the breaking Luck of Edenhall!
In storms the foe with fore and sword;
He in the night had scaled the wall,
Slain by the sword lies the youthful Lord,
But holds in his hand the crystal tall,
The shattered luck of Edenhall."
All-seeing eye: spiritual sight: inner vision/higher knowledge
Amulet: Magic charm to bring good luck & protection against illness
Ankh: Egyptian cross symbolizing a mythical eternal life, rebirth & life giving power of the sun
Angel: Symbol of good & evil spirits
Arrow: Symbolized: war, power, swiftness, rays of sun, knowledge
Bat: A symbol of good fortune in the east
Caduceus (Staff of Hermes): Greek messenger god: Hermes - 2 serpents creates 5 energy fields in body
Circle: Ancient/universal symbol of unity, wholeness, infinity, the goddess, female power, and the sun - feminine spirit or force.
Cow: Symbolises sky goddess Hathor to Egyptians, enlightenment to Buddhists and highest reincarnation to Hindus
Crescent Moon: Symbol of ageing goddess to contemporary witches and victory over death
Cross of Christians
Dove: Peace: representing the world's vision of universal peace: such as rainbow, olive branch, globe, Egyptian ankh
Dragon: Mythical monster made up of animals: serpent, lizard, bird, lion. Asian: help against hostile spiritual forces
Dreamcatcher: Hang near bed to block bad dreams
Evil Eye: Symbol of dreadful fabled curse: frightened people
Fish (ISCHTYS): Jesus Christ, Song of God, Savior (Greek letters)
Frog: Symbol of fertility to many cultures
Hand of Fatima or Hamsa: Jewish versions of the hand: protect from evil eye
Hexagram: Star of David
Infinity: Ancient India/Tibet: represented perfection/dualism & unity between male and female
Lion: ancient symbol of the sun. dominion, power, ferocity and bravery: put on shields, flags or banners by Medieval rulers.
Mask: Used by pagans to represent animal powers/nature spirits, or ancestral spirits.
Mermaid: Seen by some cultures as sea goddesses: guarded treasures/frightened travelers/fairy tales. Sirens in Homer's tales.
OM: Sanskrit letters or symbol for the sacred Hindu sound om: states of consciousness: awake, sleeping, dreaming and transcendental state
Scarab: Egyptian sun god: sacred symbol
Serpent or Snake: Represented rebirth: protection against evil, male and female sexuality, rain and fertility, mediator between physical and spiritual world.
Spider: Linked to treachery and death in cultures - trickster or spinner of fate
Tao: Ancient Chinese symbol: unity, polarity, holism, magic - Yin Yang
Triangle: Associated with number 3 0 pointing upwards: symbolises fire, male power and counterfeit view of God. Pointing down: symbolizes water, female sexuality, goddess religions and homosexuality.
Knock on Wood
Knock on wood 3 times:
+ Trees are inhabited by nature spirits
+ Invoke the aid of benevolent nature spirit residing within
+ Irish: believed you thanked the leprechauns for good luck you've been experiencing.
+ Christian: wood is the cross that Christ is crucified on
+ Jewish: 1490s: Spanish Inquisition under Torquemada: Jews running from life: synagogues and temples built out of wood: coded knocks by Jews - knocking on wood became good luck
+ Tree worshippers: laid hands on trees when asking for favour from spirits/gods that lived inside
+ Seeking protection against envy and anger
Supernatural Causality: one event causes another without any natural process linking the two events (astrology, religion, omens, witchcraft, prophecies) that contradicts natural science. - luck, prophecy, spiritual beings
Superstition and Psychology
+ BF Skinner: article in Journal of Experimental Psychology
+ Pigeons exhibition superstitious behaviour
+ Done ritualistically to receive food: try to influence their feeding schedule
+ Experimentation: partial reinforcement effect: explains superstitious behaviour in humans - means that "when an individual performs an action expecting a reinforcement, and none seems forthcoming, it actually creates a sense of persistence within the individual." - continuing action: reinforcement will happen
+ Monotheistic religions - descend from Abraham
+ Based on Torah: handed down through Moses
+ Hebrew Bible and the Talmud
+ Based on teachings of Jesus in the New Testament
+ Jesus as Son of God. Holy Trinity: Father, Son and Holy Spirit as one Godhead.
+ Based off of Quran: revealed by God and on the teachings of Muhammad
+ Founded in the Indian subcontinent - dharma: specific law of reality and duties according to religion
+ Conecpts: karma, caste, reincarnation, mantras, yantras, darsana.
+ Dates back to prehistoric times
+ Lots of separate philosophies
+ Founded by Siddhattha Gotama: help sentient beings end their suffering by understanding the nature of phenomena: escape the cycle of suffering and rebirth -> achieve nirvana
+ Monotheistic religion founded on teachings of Guru Nanak
+ One god who prevails in everything - social reform
East Asian Religion
Chinese folk religion: Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Wuism
+ "the history and scriptures of the world's religions tell stories of violence and war as they speak of peace and love"
+ "Religions claim divine favor for themselves: over against other groups: this sense of righteousness leads to violence because conflicting claims to superiority, based on unverifiable appeals to God, cannot be adjudicated objectively"
Superstition in Religion:
"Superstition has been described as "the incorrect establishment of cause and effect" or a false conception of causation"
The Book of Life [film]
+ Film about battle for souls between La Muerte (death) the ruler of Land of the Remembered and Xibalba ruler of the Land of the Forgotten
"Ultimately you walk life side-by-side with death,” he says, “and the Day of the Dead, curiously enough, is about life. It’s an impulse that’s intrinsic to the Mexican character. And when people ask me, what is so Mexican about your films, I say me. Because I’m not a guy that hides the monster: I show it to you with the absolute conviction that it exists. And that’s the way I think we view death. We don’t view it as the end of end all. You say ‘carpe diem’ in Dead Poets Society; we have that in a much more tequila-infused, mariachi-soundtrack kind of way.”
The Mexican way of life and death, according to Del Toro, is a legacy of pre-Columbian times, from Mayan and Aztec cultures that accepted that blood would be spilt in the natural course of things. “It is unnatural to deny effort, adversity and pain,” he says. “I think we live in a culture that is actually hedging all of it towards comfort and immediacy, things that scare me. All the things that they sell us as a way of life scare me.”
The Magic of Everyday Life [Book]
+ Outward manifestations of deeply seated anxieties
+ Latin: Superstes: outliving and surviving
+ Describe beliefs of death religions living on
+ Breaking a mirror: reflected self: alter ego, harm alter ego
+ Walking under ladder: ladder against tree
+ Superstitions: offer comforting assurance that the person can influence one's fate for good/evil
+ Competitive situations - create anxieties - create sperstitions
Sports: bet on 3, 7, 9s - odd #s
'Luck is poor man's substitute for fate."
+ Irrational and a "weapon against chaos"
+ Belief in an order - nothing to do with order/probability/cause & effect
+ Lucky charms - Luck: lack of obvious rationale
+ Shape of things to come
+ Counting birds - pre-Roman: count owls, wren, jack daw
+ 24 black birds - baked in pierhyme - see outside house of dead family member
+ Houses: Ireland - throw hat in air - where ever it lands it is safe to build
+ Bread & salt laid on foundations for good luck
+ Late 17th century - build bottle of water & bread into the walls
+ aid on foundation of blood: bury alive - Roman and Siam
Psychology Behind Superstition
+ Humans feel the need to create a "false certainty" instead of no certainty at all
+ Superstitions let people think that they have done more than what is already possible to make sure to receive the right outcome.
+ Placebo effect: think something will help you, it may actually help you
+ Statistics show women are more superstitious then men (such as horoscopes), older people are less likely to believe in superstitions, the more anxious the person - the more likely to be superstitious
+ Locus of control is a factor: internal locus (things based on self) less likely to be superstitious, external locus (things based on outside forces) more likely to be superstitious
List of Several Superstitions of Interest
Acorn: Carried and will bring luck and a long life
Amber: Amber beads - worn as a necklace can protect illness or cure colds
Ambulance: Seeing an ambulance is unlucky unless you pinch your nose or hold your breath until you see a brown dog
Apple: Twist the stem of an apple and recite names of someone you might marry - when the stem comes off: that is the person that you will marry
Baby: Swing a wedding band over the palm of a pregnant girl - if it swings circularly it is a girl, if it swings in a line it is a boy
Bed: Bad luck to put a hat on a bed, bed facing north and south brings misfortune, get out of bed on the same side as you got in
Bee: A swarm of bees setting on a roof is an omen that the house will burn down
Bell: Bells drive away demons, when a bell rings an angel gets it's wings (It's a Wonderful Life)
Bird: Bird in the house is a sign of a death
Blue: Blue bead will protect yourself from witches
Bridge: If you say goodbye to a friend on a bridge
Butterfly: If the first butterfly you see in the year is white: you will have good luck all year, three butterflies together mean good luck
Cat: If a black cat walks towards you, it brings good fortune, if it walks away, it takes good luck with it
Cheeks: If you cheeks feel on fire: someone is talking about you
Cigarettes: It is bad luck to light three cigarettes with the same match
Circle: Evil spirits can't harm you when you stand inside a circle
Clover: It's good luck to find a four leaf clover - protects from spell of magicians and fairies
Coin: Bad luck to pick up a coin if it's tails side up
Crack: Don't step on crack on sidewalk or walkway: "Step on a crack, break your mother's back."
Cricket: Cricket in the house brings good luck
Counting Crows: One's bad, two's luck, three's health, four's wealth, five's sickness, six is death.
Eyelash: If your eyelash falls out, blow it and make a wish
Fish: Fish should be eaten from head to tail
Flag: It is bad luck for a flag to touch the ground
Friday the 13th: Origins
1) Norse myth: Dinner party with 12 gods in their heaven, mischievous Loki walks in as 13th guest. Loki arranged for the blind god of darkness to shoot Balder the Beautiful (god of joy and gladness) with an arrow. Balder died, and Earth got dark. Earth mourned
2) In the bible: Judas the apostle was the 13th guest to the Last Supper, Eve temped Adam on a Friday, Flood in the bible, Tower of Babel, Death of Jesus took place on Friday
3) Friday the 13th: In 1306 - King Philip of France arrested Knights Templar and tortured them
4) Ancient Rome: witches gathered in groups of 12 as 13 was the devil
5) 12 is a complete power for numerologists: 12 months in a year, 12 zodiacs, 12 gods of Olympus, 12 labors of Hercules, 12 tribes of Israel, 12 apostles of Jesus.
Examples of 13:
1) More than 80 high risese lack a 13th floor
2) Airports skip 13th gate
3) Hospitals and hotels have no room number 13th
Itch: If your nose itches you will be kissed by a fool: If your nose itches, your mouth is in danger. You'll kiss a fool, and meet a stranger. Rub an itch to wood it will come to good.
Ladder: Bad luck to walk under a ladder
Lie: "Cross my heart and hope to die, cut my throat if I tell a lie."
Milk: Bad luck to let milk boil over
Mirror: If you break a mirror it is 7 years bad luck. Mirror attracts lightning: should be covered during thunderstorm
Moth: A white moth inside the house or trying to enter the house means death
Opals: Unlucky to wear opals unless born in October
Owl: Seeing an owl in the sunlight is bad luck
Photograph: If three people are photographed together, the middle one will die first
Rabbit's Foot: Bring luck and protect the owner from evil spirits
Rocking Chair: If you leave a rocking chair rocking and empty, evil spirits will come and sit in it
Salt: Throw a pinch of salt over your shoulder into the face of the devil if you spill salt
Seagull: Three seagulls flying together directly overhead are a warning of death soon to come
Shoes: Putting shoes on the table will bring bad luck - lose job, trouble with mate
Sneeze: Your soul may escape while sneezing so cover mouth. Devil can enter mouth through sneeze hence why "God Bless You"
Veil: A bride's veil protects evil spirits who are jealous of happy people
Wood: Knock wood three times after talking about good fortune so evil spirits won't come
Windows: After death, all windows should be opened so the soul can leave
Diane Sudkya: Folk
+ Illustrations that explore the artist's own imagination in terms of folklore
+ Creates her own folklore and illustrations to accompany it and leaves the rest for the audience to decipher
+ I like the idea of incorporating her own aspects of story telling into it - however, I am not sure if this will be the right approach to my project as I feel as if I do not have enough research to create my own folklore as it should be informed with research.
Edgar Allen Poe's The Raven
Choice of Raven as the "bearer of ill news":
+ During that time: raven's black feather was considered a magical sign of ill omen
+ Referring to Norse mythology: Odin god had two ravens (Hugin and Munin) meaning thought and memory. 
+ Printed in Mad magazine with illustrations by Will Elder 
Alphabet of Superstitions
+ Used the superstitions that already existed and tried to translate them into more interesting ways of presentation
+ I find that the rabbit's foot product to be very successful as it plays on advertising and consumerism as a whole while conveying the nature of the rabbit's foot or good luck charms. This is definitely something that I want to explore later on in the project.
+ Style of work is also very nice - ways of print making rather than digital so that the final pieces seem more rough and ragged rather than clean cut - print making is a method which I want to explore more in my project
Jordan Baseman: Some People Believe
"Jordan Baseman was commissioned to create an artwork for Oak Repels Lightning, a temporary art exhibition in the Challenge of Materials and Chemistry galleries in 1998. Baseman was interested in the emotional side of materials, and created Some People Believe, a website and alternative label trail that explored belief systems placed upon materials in folklore, fairytales, religion and superstition. Gathering often astonishing and incredible myths and superstitions from around the world, the artist gave insight into the importance materials play in everyday life and the culture-defining effect they can have. In 20th-century Borneo 'some people believe that gold has a soul'."
Some of the myths and superstitions from the work Some People Believe
Some people believe that cork placed under the pillow at night will prevent cramp during sleep.
Some people believe that copper wire bound around the waist will relieve rheumatism.
Some people believe that an arrow made from lead can kill love in a young person.
Some people believe that putting nails made from iron in all the food within a house in mourning will drive death away from the house.
Some people believe that coffin nails made from silver will ensure that the spirit cannot escape after death.
Some people believe that gold has a soul.
Some people believe that if any object made of tin is brought into a mine then only non-precious metals will be found.
Some people believe that if any glass is accidentally broken during the celebration of a marriage it will mean misfortune to the newlyweds.
Some people believe that if a piece of raw cotton becomes attached to your clothing then you will receive a letter from an admirer.
Some people believe that wool will absorb infection if held next to the skin.
Some people believe that burning leather and then inhaling the fumes on New Year's Eve will prevent misfortune and bring good health for the new year.
Some people believe that epilepsy can be cured by drinking ground human bones.
Some people believe that eating small amounts of wood from a pine tree will make a person immune to gunshot.
Some people believe that the wood from an oak tree will repel lightning.
Some people believe that warts can be transferred to an ash tree by rubbing bacon on the wart and then inserting the bacon underneath the bark of the tree.
Some people believe that the wood from a beech tree will bring misfortune to children if it is brought into the home.
Some people believe that witches and evil spirits congregate under walnut trees.
Some people believe that passing a child through the branches of a maple tree will ensure a long life.
Some people believe that it is unlucky to find a crow's feather.
Some people believe that holy candles must be made from beeswax because bees come from paradise.
Some people believe that holding a piece of coal while carrying out a crime will prevent you from being caught.
Some people believe that diamonds are the product of thunderbolts striking the earth.
Some people believe that bursting a paper bag indoors portends death.
Some people believe that wearing a ruby will allow the wearer to go amongst his or her enemies without fear.
Some people believe that putting a piece of quartz in your mouth and then spitting it out towards the sky during a drought will bring rain.
Some people believe that breaking a coconut on the threshold of a newlywed couple’s house will ensure a healthy marriage.
Some people believe that sprinkling flax seed over children will make them grow faster and stronger.
Some people believe that eating from a bone china plate which is resting on another bone china plate foretells death.
Some people believe that the sowing of hemp seed by a young girl will produce a vision of her future husband.
Some people believe that stones which have a natural hole in them will prevent nightmares if they are hung above the bed before sleep.